Are my testicles too small?


If your testicles are significantly smaller than average, consider the following possible causes:

  • An undescended testicle. Your testicle may not have developed fully because it didn’t descend correctly in childhood.
  • Hormone imbalances (possibly as a result of hypogonadism). If your body does not produce enough of certain hormones, your testes will not ramp up testosterone production.
  • High exposure to female sex hormones. You may have been exposed to significant amounts of estrogen.
  • Klinefelter Syndrome. An extra copy of the X chromosome will result in smaller testicles (usually up to 6 ml). If only a part of your cells have an extra X chromosome, you may suffer from mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome. Your testicles may be 6-15 ml in size. Use the orchidometer app to find out if it could be Klinefelter Syndrome.
  • Testicular atrophy. A testicle that is smaller than 12 ml can be considered to be atrophied.

Bigger testicles

There isn’t a one-fits-all solution for small testicles. Taking fish oil supplements may result in a small increase in testicle size. Getting enough exercise and eating a healthy diet will maximise your testicular volume.

If you are noticing a sginificant change in testicle size, contact your doctor for a medical exam. A doctor may prescribe medications such as HCG or Clomid to stimulate your testicles to produce more testosterone.

Are you still unhappy with your testicle size? Some plastic surgeons offer surgery with implants to increase the size of your testicles.

You can also get a Scrotox procedure, where botox is injected into the scrotum. This will not enlarge the testicles, but it will make them look larger.

The silver lining

There are some upsides to having smaller testicles. It does not necessarily impact fertility or testosterone levels. In fact, having ‘small balls’ may even have some benefits.

One study showed that having small testicles is associated with being a better father. Small testicles can also visually enhance the size of your ‘package’. Only when your testicles are smaller than 15 ml (around 1.4 inches or 3.5 cm in width), testosterone production could be affected.

To find out if your testicles are smaller than 15 ml, use the orchidometer app for iPhone.

The Orchidometer app
Find out if you suffer from testicular atrophy or Klinefelter Syndrome with the Orchidometer app (available on the App Store)


  • Mehul June 21, 2023

    My right testicle is 37 × 19 × 28 mm and left testicle is 37 × 19 ×26 mm so I have two questions
    1st. What is my exact testicle volumes of both testis and is this is small testis or sign of testicle atropy
    2nd. One of the reputed urologist said that the google data is Western side that consist of less than 12 ml volume could be testicle atropy but in India ultrasonography measurement of less than 5 ml volume consider testicle atropy is this true ?

    • orchidometer September 16, 2023

      Hi Mehul,

      1. Your right testicle is 14 ml and your left testicle is 13 ml (using Lambert’s formula). That’s relatively small and would put you in the bottom 25% of the male population (using Tomova et al., 2010 data).
      2. An adult testicular volume of less than 12 ml is indeed considered as testicular atrophy. I’m not sure if this volume is different in India.

  • Jerry May 30, 2023


    I had bilateral undescended testicles when I was born and got surgery done when I was around 10. I am 17 and my testicle lengths are only around 3cm. I am really worried that I might have klinefelter. I am only 5’8 and I have a lot of body hair but I’m still unsure. I really need help.

    • orchidometer June 1, 2023

      Hi Jerry,

      I too had an undescended testicle and it only descended when I was around 10. The size is only just a bit bigger than 3 cm (while the other one is healthy for me).

      I used the Orchidometer app for iPhone and checked your testicle size. If your testicle is around 3 cm, your testicular volume would be around 8 ml. People with Klinefelter Syndrome usually have testicles smaller than 6 ml (although in mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome, testicle size can be larger). Since you are not very tall and have a lot of body hair, my guess would be that your testicles have a developmental delay but are still functioning.

      The only way to truly find out if you have Klinefelter Syndrome is to do a Karyotype test, but this can be quite expensive. An alternative would be to do a fertility test: if you are fertile, it is very unlikely that you have Klinefelter Syndrome. You could ask a doctor to test the level of testosterone in your blood. If you have normal testosterone levels, it is also unlikely that you have Klinefelter Syndrome.

      Disclaimer: I am not a doctor and I cannot give any medical advice. Always consult with a doctor if you want a correct medical diagnosis.

  • jim johnson March 22, 2023

    both of my testicles are 1ml born premie and infertile, testosterone total is 66ng/dl i feel like shit ,feel like im 100 years old

    • orchidometer March 29, 2023

      Hey Jim, I’m sorry to hear that. Have you consulted your doctor? Perhaps you could try Testosterone Replacement Therapy.

  • Jimi January 29, 2023

    My right testicle externally is 4.6cm long…2.6 cm wide…and 2.3cm depth…
    Left testicle externally is 4.5 cm long…2.5cm wide…and depth of 2.2 cm…Is it normal…?

    • orchidometer March 20, 2023

      Hey Jimi! Your right testicle is 19.5 ml (using Lambert’s formula) and your left testicle is 17.5 ml. These are perfectly healthy and normal testicle sizes.

  • Mateus Pabriga October 28, 2022

    Hi there. I’m unsure a out my testicle size but my right one is about 4cm and my left one seems to be 3cm. One thing I can note is that as a child I had a weird sleeping position where my arm was tucked between my legs, essentially on my testicle (specifically the left one). Considering the size of my right one vs my left one, would the size difference be due to the way I slept? Just like how sleeping on one side of your face causes asymmetry?

    • orchidometer October 29, 2022

      Hi Mateus! 4 cm would mean a testicular volume of around 18 ml which is below the average adult testicle size (around the bottom 18%). 3 cm would be around 8 ml, which is quite small and can be considered as testicular atrophy (<2% of the adult male population has this testicle size). It corresponds to Tanner stage 3. The smaller testicle could indeed be caused by pressure from your arm, since your body grows during sleep. The Orchidometer app and website cannot give any medical advice, however, so please consult a doctor if you want to get a diagnosis.

  • Jos August 29, 2022

    Hello ,
    My right testicle is 7 x 4.5 x 4 cm and my left one is 6 x 5 x 4 cm , is this average ?
    I am 53 years old .

    • orchidometer September 3, 2022

      Hi Jos, your right testicle would be 89 ml and your left testicle would be 85 ml using Lambert’s formula. Are you sure you are measuring correctly? These sizes are far above average and would be quite rare. A normal testicular volume is usually around 25 and 30 ml. A testicular volume above 30 ml is considered macroorchidism (large testicles). One cause of macroorchidism is Fragile X Syndrome. To get an accurate measurement of your testicle, measure your testicle with a calliper or using the Orchidometer app for iPhone. Please consult a doctor if you are concerned about your testicle size. The Orchidometer app and website cannot give any medical advice.

  • John August 25, 2022

    I had an ultrasound utilizing color and spectral Doppler. My right testis: 4.2 cm x 1.9 cm x 2.9 cm and my left testis: 3.0 cm x 1.7 cm x 2.0 cm. Is this below average or normal average size testis. Thank you.

    • orchidometer August 28, 2022

      Hi John, your right testicle is 16 ml and your left testicle is 7 ml using Lambert’s formula. Note that most average testicle sizes that are found online were made using a Prader orchidometer and not ultrasound. Ultrasound measurements will always be smaller. When I use the Normal distribution feature in the Orchidometer app and select ‘Ultrasound’, a volume of 16 ml would put you in the top 30% of men. A volume of 7 ml would put you in the bottom 4% of men. Your left testicle is clearly a lot smaller than your right testicle. Did you have an undescended testicle at birth, or was it damaged? These values are based on Goede at el., 2011. If we use the values from Tomova et al., 2010, your right testicle would be average and your left testicle would again be in the bottom 3-4%. Please consult a doctor if you have any concerns, this website cannot give you any medical advice.

  • Jerom July 6, 2022

    My right testicle measurements
    My left testicle measurements
    How much will I get in orchidometer ?
    and Why there is a difference in the sizes of my testicles, knowing that I do not have varicose veins and I have never had an injury or sprain?

    • orchidometer July 19, 2022

      Hi Jerom, according to the Lambert formula, your right testicle is 10 ml and your left testicle is 20 ml. It appears your right testicle is below average, but your left testicle is normal.
      Did you have an undescended testicle at birth? This could explain why one of your testicles is slightly smaller. Another explanation could be testicular atrophy (possibly due to hormones or a disease) or Klinefelter Syndrome. In Klinefelter Syndrome both testicles would be small, however, so this is unlikely in your case. I cannot give any medical advice, so I would advise you to contact a doctor if you want to get a medical diagnosis.

  • Rob March 18, 2022

    1 of my testicles is 3cmx1.5cmx1.5cm & the other is 2.75cmx1.25cmx1.5cm what volume are they or tanner stage?

    • orchidometer March 28, 2022

      Hi Rob, using Lambert’s formula, the first testicle would be around 5 ml. The other testicle would be roughly 4 ml. That would correspond to a Tanner stage of around 2. Depending on your age, this could be normal or below average. If you have any concerns, please reach out to a doctor.

  • Shirin Bose March 9, 2022

    Hey, so I went to several doctors who checked my size using calipers and rulers holding one testicle tightly on the skin at a time, the size uses to vary around, length: 4.2-4.4 cm, width- 2.7-3cm, height – 2.3-2.5cm, so taking the worst possible measurements will give, length- 4.2cm width-2.7cm height -2.3cm.
    Is it small enough to worry about atrophy or klinefelters? I’m from india so average size here should be smaller than other countreis.

    • orchidometer March 10, 2022

      Hi Shirin, so in the worst case, your volume is 18.5 ml (using Lambert’s formula). In the best case, it is a little over 23 ml. Either way, the volume is quite a lot larger than the volume associated with testicular atrophy (<12 ml), Klinefelter Syndrome (<6 ml) or Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome (<15 ml). However, this website does not provide medical advice and you should always contact a doctor if you have any concerns.

      You can also download the Orchidometer app if you have an iPhone. It will allow you to track your testicle size over time.

  • Shirin Saha March 8, 2022

    My skin tight testicle size measured with calipers and ruler was: length – 4.2+ cm, width – 2.7 cm, height – 2.3+ cm
    Is it in normal range? (Used + as it measured different in different times or days as per your suggestion above, and the worst or shortest measurement among all are written), also I’m from India where the average is probably lower than normal

    • orchidometer March 10, 2022

      Hi Shirin, 4.2 x 2.7 cm x 2.3 cm is a volume of around 18-19 ml. Testicle size can vary over the day, but this volume seems like a normal, healthy volume. It corresponds to Tanner stage IV or V. It is slightly below average, but it is definitely not testicular atrophy (<12 ml in volume). In Klinefelter Syndrome, testicular volume is usually below 12 ml.

      • Shirin Saha March 10, 2022

        Hey, so, I’m almost 22, so it is tanner stage V, I guess? Doesn’t tanner stage depend on age? Is it possible that my testicle is in tanner stage 4 till now, and will grow slightly soon in tanner stage V? Another and last query is, this was measured by holding testicle tight to the skin and using calipers and rulers (several times), so even with error occured it seems the size is in safe zone right? I don’t have any low T symptoms, was just confirming stuff. The same error should occur when we measure with orchidometer or the app, i guess. As all of these are skin tight measurements itself.

        • orchidometer March 28, 2022

          Hi Shirin,

          Tanner stage depends on a few features such as genital development, pubic hair and breast development (for girls). If you are 22, your testicles will likely not grow anymore. But testicle size can also vary on a day-to-day basis. If you want to track Tanner stage, feel free to use our Orchidometer app. Yes, your testicle size seems to be normal and in the safe zone. That’s right, the only way to get a 100% accurate measurement, is using ultrasound!

  • John January 10, 2022

    Hi my testicles are right side 4.41 x 2.35 x 2.42 = 13.2ml
    Left 4.68 x 2.19 x 2.89 = 15.52ml
    Could I have mosaic Klinefelters?
    I am 26.

    • orchidometer January 11, 2022

      Hi John,

      In the Orchidometer app, your right testicle corresponds to around 14-16 ml and your left testicle to around 20 ml in volume. To estimate testicular volume, Lambert’s formula is more accurate than the ellipsoid formula (that I assume you’ve used). If you have Klinefelter Syndrome, your testicles would likely be smaller than 6 ml in volume. If you have mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome, a volume of less than 15 ml is likely, although there are exceptions. Do you have any other symptoms, such as weak muscles, delayed puberty, being taller than average and having gynecomastia? Here’s what the Orchidometer app would show you with the volumes you provided. Please note that you should always contact a doctor if you want to get an accurate diagnosis. The only way to know with certainty if you have Klinefelter Syndrome, is to get a karyogram.

      • James October 9, 2022

        I have always worried that my testes were too small. I have fathered 2 cgildren with my wife, despite their small size. I recently had an ultrasound done to check a cyst and my right testicle measures 4.6 x 2.8 x 2.0 cm. The left testicle measures 4.1 x 2.9 x 2.2 cm. I am in my mid thirties and noticed i wasnt feeling as good as i used to so i had my testosterone checked and it was only 174, i also have a small penis, only about 5.5 inches or so erect. Could my small testicles be the problem?

        • orchidometer October 16, 2022

          Hi James! For ultrasound, these measurements don’t sound that small. Using Lambert’s formula, your left testicle is 18 ml and your right testicle is 19 ml. This means you do not have testicular atrophy (<12 ml) and your testicular volume is just a little below average. Your testosterone level is indeed very low, however. Low testosterone can be due to many factors (high body fat, not enough exercise, diet, stress, drugs, etc). If these are all ruled out, you might want to consult a doctor and ask for TRT. Whether small testicles could be the cause of low testosterone: it could be. Generally, smaller testicles can produce enough testosterone. Some people have lost a testicle, but can still produce enough testosterone.

          The worldwide average penis size is 5.35 inches by the way, so your penis size is not small.

      • John January 11, 2022


        I am 6ft4
        Those measurements were given by a doctor after having an assessment (where they put the gel on your testes to gain measurement). I am “skinny fat”.
        I have normal beard growth etc which is why I’m scared I have mosaic Klinefelters

        • orchidometer January 11, 2022

          You could request a fertility test if a karyotype is not an option. If you have Klinefelter Syndrome, you are most likely sterile. If you have mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome, you would likely be infertile or have reduced fertility. You can also use the Orchidometer app to compare your testicle size to the ellipse shown in the app. Don’t forget to turn on the option in Settings -> Genetic disorders -> Klinefelter Syndrome -> Show indicator.

        • John January 11, 2022

          I was also born with an undescended testicle (my right one)

  • Demari January 9, 2022

    Does my parents dna determine my testicle size?

    • Aboud September 12, 2023

      My right testies measures 4.6×2.2×2.2
      Left testies measure 4.6×2.1×2.1
      I am 22 years old is it normal and can hcg increase testies size in my age

      • orchidometer September 16, 2023

        Hi Aboud,

        Your right testicle is 16 ml and your left testicle is 14 ml according to Lambert’s formula. This means you do not have testicular atrophy (<12 ml) and likely no Klinefelter Syndrome (<6 ml). If I check the normal distribution in the Orchidometer app, it does put you in the lower ~40% of the population. That would mean about 60% of men have larger testicles and 40% have smaller testicles (data by Tomova et al., 2010).

        HCG can temporarily increase testicle size, but using drugs always has risks. You would also need a doctor's prescription. As I am not a medical professional, so I cannot give you any medical advice.

    • orchidometer January 10, 2022

      Hi Demari,

      Yes, your testicle size is mostly determined by your DNA. In mice, a study showed that testis size is controller by around 40 genes. Two of these genes control testis size by regulating the number of Sertoli cells. But your testicle size can also be affected by other factors such as the environment, age and disease. If you are younger than 18, your testicles will likely still grow. If you’re already an adult, your testicle size could be smaller if you have Klinefelter Syndrome or suffer from testicular atrophy. If you want to know how your testicle size compares to the average male, use the ‘Normal distribution’ option in our Orchidometer app. With this option, you can check what percentage of the population has larger and smaller testicles. You can also check whether you might have Klinefelter Syndrome or testicular atrophy. This is not a diagnosis, however, and you should always consult with a doctor if you have questions about your testes.

  • Jacob P. January 6, 2022

    My testicles measure in at about 4cm at length and 3cm in width. Would I be at risk for Klinefelter syndrome?

    • orchidometer January 6, 2022

      Hi Jacob! A testicle of 4 cm in length and 3 cm in width would mean a volume of around 25 ml. That is much larger than a testicular volume associated with Klinefelter Syndrome and looks more like the average adult size. People with Klinefelter Syndrome often have a testicular volume less than 2.5 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm. (or a volume of less than 6 ml). People with mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome can have larger testicles, but usually below 15 ml. If you want to accurately measure your testicle size and see if you might have have this syndrome, please use our Orchidometer app and enable the option in Settings -> Genetic disorders -> Klinefelter syndrome > Show indicator. If you save a measurement by tapping on the orchidometer, you can view if you are at risk by opening the measurements screen and tapping on ‘Klinefelter syndrome’. This will add a filter to the chart with measurements.

      Please note that this is not medical advice and only a doctor can tell you if you have Klinefelter Syndrome. You can request a Karyotype to get a definitive answer to your question.

  • Shaun H. December 17, 2021

    Do I have small testicles? The right testicle is 1.3 inch and the left is slightly smaller at 1.2 inch?

    • orchidometer December 17, 2021

      Hi Shaun! It very much depends on your age. A size of 1.3 inch would mean a testicular volume of around 12-14 ml. But it could be a little bit more or less (to get an accurate measurement, please use our Orchidometer app).
      A volume of 14 ml means you are in Tanner stage 4, which is almost an adult size (Tanner stage 5). Your testicular volume could also vary during the day or week, so it could be useful to take several measurements. Testicular atrophy means you have a testicular volume of less than 12 ml in volume, which appears not to be the case for you. In Klinefelter Syndrome, we often see a testicular volume of less than 10 ml, which would mean a testicle width of less than or around 1 inch. If you’d like to see how you compare to the population in size, check out the ‘normal distribution’ option in our app. Select your age and see what percentage of the population has smaller and bigger testicles than you.


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